Chapter 1: Hello pipenv¶
Before we can start programming, we need to do a little housekeeping on our computer. It’s not required, but every organized Python project should have a system for managing two highly technical, but very important, issues. They are:
- How to install and manage your programming tools
- How to your keep your code from conflicting with other projects
We will solve these problems with Pipenv. It handles both of the issues outlined above, hence the tool’s two-part name, which is a programming portmanteau.
The “pip” package manager¶
Whatever the aim of your project, you likely will rely on one or more Python packages that extend the language’s standard library. This allows you to import modules written by other trusty Python developers into your own code so that you can focus on the work that matters to you. The JupyterLab development environment, pandas analysis kit and Altair chart library covered in this class are all examples.
These third-party packages are available — for free — via the Python Package Index, where they are published largely by volunteers. To download and install them on your computer, you need a tool called a package manager.
Python’s default package manager is pip. It allows you to retrieve and unpack PyPi packages from your terminal. It goes something like this:
pip install jupyterlab
With pip, you can also document the exact version of each of package your project requires and store in a list that records everything necessary to run your code.
Typically these dependencies are specified in a requirements.txt file. This document makes it easier to sync your project’s requirements across multiple machines if, for instance, you are collaborating with other developers.
Lucky for us, all the functionality of pip is included in Pipenv, as well as much more.
The “env” environment manager¶
By default, Python’s third-party packages are all installed in a shared “global” folder somewhere in the depths of your computer. By default, every Python project on your computer draws from this same set of installed programs.
This approach is fine for your first experiments with Python, but it quickly falls apart when you start to get serious about coding.
For instance, say you develop a web application today with Flask version 1.1. What if, a year from now, you want to start a new project and use a newer version of Flask? Your old app is still live and requires occasional patches, but you don’t have time to re-write all of your old to make it compatible with the latest version of Flask.
Open-source projects are changing every day and such conflicts are common, especially when you factor in the sub-dependencies of your project’s direct dependencies, as well as the sub-dependencies of those sub-dependencies.
Programmers solve this problem by creating a virtual environment for each project that isolates them into discrete, independent containers that do not rely on code in the global environment.
Strictly speaking, working within a virtual environment is not required. At first, it might even feel like a hassle. But in the long run, you will be glad you did it. And you don’t have to take my word for it, you can read discussions on StackOverflow and Reddit.
Good thing Pipenv can do this too.
Pipenv and its prerequisites are installed via your computer’s command-line interface. You can verify its there by typing the following into your terminal:
If you have it installed, you should see the terminal respond with the version on your machine.
pipenv, version 2018.11.26
If you get an error, you will need to install it.
brew install pipenv
pip install --user pipenv
Whatever installation route you choose, you can confirm your success by testing for its version again:
If you see that version number now, you know you’re okay.
Create a code directory to store all your work¶
Now let’s create a common folder where all you of your projects will be stored starting with this one. This is also where our virtualenv will be configured.
Open your command-line interface, which will start you off in your home directory. Enter the following command and press enter to see all of the folders there now.
Next use the mkdir to create a new directory for your code. In the same style as the Desktop, Documents and Downloads folders included by most operating system, we will name this folder Code.
To verify that worked, you can open in your file explorer and navigate to your home folder.
Create a project directory¶
Now let’s make a folder for your work in this class.
Next use your terminal to navigate into the new directory with the cd command:
Install your first package¶
Now let’s install a simple Python package to see Pipenv in action. We’ll choose yolk3k, a simple command-line tool that can list all your installed python packages.
We can add it to our project’s private virtual environment by typing its name after Pipenv’s install command.
pipenv install yolk3k
When you invoke Pipenv’s
install command, it checks for an existing virtual environment connected to your project’s directory. Finding none, it creates one, then installs yolk3k into it.
As a result, two files are added to your project directory: Pipfile and Pipfile.lock. These are Pipenv’s alternative to the requirements.txt file mentioned earlier.
In the Pipfile, you’ll see the name and exact version of any package we directed Pipenv to install. So far, we’ve only installed yolk3k, and we didn’t specify an exact version, so you’ll see:
[packages] yolk3k = "*"
Pipfile.lock has a more complicated, nested structure that specifies the exact version of your project’s direct dependencies along with all their sub-dependencies.
Now that yolk is installed, we can execute it inside our environment using Pipenv’s run command. Let’s use its simple command for listing all of our currently installed tools.
pipenv run yolk -l
You should see the computer spit out everything you have installed. You’ll notice that yolk3k is on the list. You’ve completed the setup process for First Python Notebook. Now the real fun begins.